#breathefreely in Manufacturing

Yesterday, BOHS with its partners, launched the second phase of the breathe freely initiative – #breathefreely in manufacturing,  at the EEF headquarters in central London. The campaign will initially be focusing on welding – raising awareness of the risks from respiratory disease and options available to prevent and control welding fume and gases.

Welding is one of the most common activities carried out in industry. It is estimated that there are at least 190,000 welders in the UK.

The main health hazard with many welding operations – particularly manual metal arc (MMA) (stick) and MIG welding – is the welding fume. This consists of very fine particles of metal oxides, mainly arising from the welding rod or wire.

The HSE estimates that exposure to welding fume causes more than 150 deaths due to cancer every year. Exposure to the fume and gases can also cause other diseases, including:

  • pneumonia
  • metal fume fever
  • chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which includes bronchitis and emphysema
  • asthma

Many welders are exposed unnecessarily to welding fume. Control measures are available – but it’s important to make sure the right controls are used – there is not one solution that will be effective in all cases.

Welding–The Risks

Nom du fichier : DSCN2003.JPG
Taille du fichier : 1.6 Mo (1711590 octets)
Date : 2002/09/18 13:23:53
Taille de l'image : 2560 x 1920 pixels
Résolution : 300 x 300 ppp
Profondeur en bits : 8 bits/canal
Attribut de protection : Désactivé
Attribut Masqué : Désactivé
ID de l'appareil : N/A
Appareil : E5000
Mode de qualité : FINE
Mode de mesure : Multizones
Mode d'exposition : Programme Auto
Speed Light : Non
Distance Focale : 21.4 mm
Vitesse d'obturation : 1/14.2 seconde
Ouverture : F4.8
Correction d'exposition : 0 IL
Balance des blancs : Auto
Objectif : Intégré
Mode Synchro-Flash : N/A
Différence d'exposition : N/A
Programme Décalable : N/A
Sensibilité : Auto
Renforcement de la netteté : Auto
Type d'image : Couleur
Mode Couleur : N/A
Saturation : N/A
Contrôle Saturation : 0 Normal
Compensation des tons : Auto
Latitude (GPS) : N/A
Longitude (GPS) : N/A
Altitude (GPS) : N/A

Welding is one of the most common activities carried out in industry. HSE estimate that there are around 190,000 welders in UK. However, this is likely to be an underestimate of the total number of workers who carry out welding as there is likely to be a large number who do a small amount of welding on an occasional basis.

There are a number of health hazards associated with welding in particular:

  • Fume
  • Gases, including ozone and, with MIG and TIG welding, inert gases that can present a problem when working in confined spaces
  • UV radiation from the welding arc. This can effect the eye (“arc eye”) and skin and is also responsible for the generation of ozone from atmospheric oxygen.

The main health hazard with many welding operations – particularly MMA (stick) and MIG welding – is the welding fume. This consists of very fine particles of metal oxides, mainly arising from the welding rod or wire.

going-beyond-osha-regulations-for-manganese-exposure-0

The composition of the fume varies depending on the metal being welded. With mild steel it will mainly consist of iron oxide but there is also likely to be a small percentage of manganese which is used in welding rods. Repeated exposure to low concentrations of manganese have been shown to affect the nervous system and the Workplace Exposure Limit for manganese will be reduced significantly in 2018. Stainless steel welding is particularly hazardous as the fume contains nickel and chromium VI oxides which are highly toxic if inhaled – both are carcinogens and can also cause occupational asthma.

As well as the fume (particulate), Arc welders will also be exposed to gases. Ozone is produced by the action of the UV from the arc on oxygen in the air. It is highly irritant to the eyes and respiratory system. In some cases, particularly with thicker plate, atmospheric nitrogen can be converted to highly irritant nitrogen oxides. With MIG and TIG welding the inert gas used to stop the weld oxidising will be released. This should not present a risk when welding outdoors or in a well ventilated area, but can present a serious risk of asphyxiation in a confined space.

going-beyond-osha-regulations-for-manganese-exposure-3

The UK Health and Safety Executive estimate that exposure to welding fume causes more than 150 deaths due to cancer every year. Exposure to the fume and gases can also cause other diseases including

  • Pneumonia
  • Metal fume fever
  • COPD
  • Asthma

Many welders are exposed unnecessarily to welding fume. Control measures are available – but it’s important to make sure the right controls are used – there is not one solution that will be effective in all cases.

Health in Construction

A couple of weeks ago I travelled down to Birmngham to give a talk on behalf of the BOHS Breathe Freely initiative at the Health and Wellbeing event at the NEC. The Title of the talk was Managing Health in Construction – What Good Looks Like. An annotated version of the slides I used during the talk are now available on Slideshare

To prepare for the talk I did a little research on the meaures that are readily available to control exposure to contaminants, particularly dust, during common activities on construction sites. A number of studies have been done, both on-site and in the laboratory to assess the effectiveness of water supression and on-tool extraction for power tools. These studies have confirmed just how they can be.

For example

  • A large scale study in Ireland by Healy et al showed that the use of local extraction built into on-tool shrouds could reduce dust exposures by up to 99%
  • Laboratory tests by Thorpe et al showed water suppression on cut-off saws reduced dust levels by up to 99%

Despite this, in a large proportion of cases these engineering controls are not being used with reliance placed on respiratory protection which is often incorrectly used and inadequately managed. So one of the main aims of the BOHS Breathe Freely initiative is to raise awareness of the types of controls that can be used to reduce exposure. Hopefully in the not too distant future we’ll see water supression and on-tool extraction become the norm rather than the exception.

 

References

Measurements of the E€ectiveness of Dust Control on Cut-off€ Saws Used in the Construction Industry. Thorpe et al. Ann Occup Hyg Vol. 43, No. 7, pp. 443-456, 1999

An Evaluation of On-Tool Shrouds for Controlling Respirable Crystalline Silica in Restoration Stone Work.  Healy et al. Ann Occup Hyg 2014;58:1155-1167

Toxic Art – Alexander Calder’s Mercury Fountain

As an occupational hygienist, when visiting the Alexander Calder exhibition at Tate Modern last week I couldn’t help but stop and take notice of the pictures and description of one of the works created by this American artist well known for his mobiles and other “kinetic sculptures” . A mercury fountain.

While I was looking at the display, I overheard a comment by a young woman to her partner as they too read about this work

“It couldn’t have been real mercury could it. That would be dangerous”

I couldn’t help responding

“It was, and it is ”

Mercury, the magical Quicksilver, has been known since ancient times. A metal that’s a liquid at room temperature that flows like water.  Being a liquid, vapours are given off which can be inhaled and it can also be absorbed through intact skin. It’s highly toxic, affecting the brain, gastrointestinal system and kidneys. It’s particularly noted for causing neurological and behavioural disorders due to brain damage. Symptoms include tremors, insomnia, memory loss, neuromuscular effects, headaches and cognitive and motor dysfunction. In Victorian times mercury compounds were used in the manufacture of felt for hats and the workers in that industry were particularly affected. This is said to have inspired Lewis Carroll’s “Mad Hatter” from Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland. This was disputed by the esteemed Professor Hugh Waldron back in 1961, but the myth persists.

image

The exhibition website tells us the story of the fountain’s creation

In 1937 Calder was one of the contributors to the Pavilion of the Spanish Republic designed by Josep Lluís Sert for the International Exposition in Paris, where his Mercury Fountain was installed in proximity to Picasso’s painting Guernica. In the middle of the Spanish Civil War, Calder showed his support for the embattled Republic by creating a fountain that would run with mercury from the mines at Almadén – a valuable economic and strategic resource. (Tate website)

A 2007 study of historical exposures of the workers in Almadén mines to mercury indicated that had been very high

In the mine, the highest exposures occurred during drilling, with values up to 2.26 mg/m3 in air, 2194 μg/l in urine and 374 μg/l in blood. Furnace operation and cleaning were the tasks with the highest values in metallurgy, peaking up to 3.37 mg/m3. The filling of bottles with mercury by free fall gave values within a range of 1.13–2.43 mg/m3 in air; these values dropped to 0.32–0.83 mg/m3 after introducing a new ventilation system.

Occupational exposure limits for mercury are typically set at between 0.02 and 0.03mg/m3

I found it a little ironic that a work of art created in support of a government dedicated to improve the lot of working people celebrated an industry likely to have been responsible for poisoning the workers in the mine where it was extracted.

Although it seems likely that visitors to the exhibition back in the 1930’s would have been exposed to mercury vapours, given the relatively short period that they would have been in the vicinity their exposure would have been limited and its highly unlikely there would have been a significant risk to their health. However, I’d be more concerned about the staff working in the Spanish Pavilion.

Today the fountain can be seen at the Fundació Joan Miró museum in Barcelona – carefully displayed under glass. Hopefully appropriate measures are taken to protect the workers who have to maintain it from the toxic liquid and vapours.

Mercury fountain

Picture from the Fundació Joan Miró museum website

Heatwave in India – implications for workers

It’s rare that the concerns of ordinary workers makes the news in Europe, but over the past few days there have been reports in the British press about fatalities being caused by a severe heatwave in India.

india_heatwave

(Picture Source; www.commondreams)

According to the Guardian over 2,200 people have died

Andhra Pradesh has been hit the hardest, with 1,636 people dying from the heat over the past month and a half, a government statement said. A further 561 people have died in neighbouring Telangana, said Sada Bhargavi, a state disaster management commissioner.

Environmental conditions have been severe. The Guardian reports

Daytime temperatures hovered between 45C and 47C (113-116 F) in parts of the two states over the weekend, 3-7C (5-12F) above normal, said YK Reddy, a director of the Meteorological Centre in the Telangana state capital of Hyderabad.

The risk from heat stress depends not only on the environmental conditions but also on other factors, particularly

  • workload
  • clothing
  • individual susceptibility

Workers carrying out heavy work for prolonged periods in hot conditions are particularly at risk as they generate significant “internal” heat as well as absorbing it from the environment. Susceptible individuals include the elderly and people who are malnourished. Not surprisingly, then, the majority of the people who have died during the heatwave have been the elderly and manual labourers working outdoors.

01AgriculturalFieldworks&Kanchipuram&TN

Agricultural workers in India (source Wikipedia)

There are over 3 million construction workers employed in India (the figure is likely to be higher if “informal” workers are included) and many millions more working in agriculture (almost 50% of the workforce). Construction and agriculture are also major industries in other hot countries in the developing world, and there have been reports of numerous heat related illnesses and fatalities linked to manual work in hot conditions in countries such as Qatar, where there has been a boom in construction due to preparations for the 2022 World Cup.

2013-10-29-qat

Construction workers in Qatar (toehk under a Creative Commons Licence via New Internationalist)

The most effective ways to minimise the risks are to prevent exposure or to introduce engineering controls supplemented with work organisation and protective clothing. However engineering controls are impractical in most cases for outdoor workers in the developing world and the so the main way to minimise the risk of workers being adversely affected is to restrict the working time through work:rest regimes or “self pacing” and other administrative /management measures such as providing plenty of cool drinking water. In practice, most employers are unlikely to look favourably on this due to the impact on productivity and profitability. Subsistence farmers are unable to afford the technology available in the developed world (such as air conditioned cabs and automation) that could be applied to reduce their heat exposure and workload and need to work hard for long hours to have a chance of growing enough to survive.

Extreme events like the current heatwave in India are likely to become more frequent in the future due to climate change and it’s not just the developing world that will be affected. The populations of Europe and the United States are also likely to face exposure to heat extremes.

These events present challenges to occupational hygienists. First of all we currently don’t have an adequate method of evaluating the risk in these situations, particularly in the developing countries. The widely used WBGT index has serious limitations and the more complex Predicted Heat Strain Index is far too complex to be used in most situations. So work needs to be done to develop a suitable approach to risk assessment for the developing world. Secondly, given the scale of the problem, there’s a need to find appropriate, effective strategies to reduce and control exposures. Neither are easy tasks. However, some good work has been done on this in countries including India and Abu Dhabi and so the third challenge is persuading employers to adopt the guidance.

Who are Workplace Health Without Borders?

Workplace Health Without Borders (WHWB) is an organisation of occupational hygienists and other occupational health professionals who want to do something about the estimated 2 million people who die every year due to ill health caused by their work, and the countless millions of workers who suffer from work related illnesses. WHWB was established in Canada in 2011 and now has members in countries across the world.

The organisation’s stated mission is to work for a world where none is made ill by their work. A grand aim which will be far from easy to achieve. But WHWB are doing their part in trying to achieve it by working to transfer occupational hygiene expertise, training and resources to developing countries to help them to develop the capacity and local infrastructure to manage and improve health conditions in their workplaces.

whwb-slideshare-presentation-dec2014-48-638 (2)

Projects undertaken by WHWB members include

  • established a mentoring programme to provide support, advice and encouragement to occupational hygienists in the developing word
  • establishing a brick plant project to address silica and other hazards in brick plants in Nepal, Pakistan and Tanzania
  • providing technical support on silica dust monitoring in Pakistan
  • facilitated donations of occupational hygiene equipment to Uruguay, Pakistan and Tanzania
  • running the OHTA Basic Principles of Occupational Hygiene course in Tanzania
  • providing training on occupational hygiene to physicians in New Delhi, India
  • sponsored a workshop in India to raise awareness on silica exposure amongst stone crushers

WHWB also organise monthly teleconferences for their members across the globe to share knowledge and experience.

WHWB members attending the recent International Occupational Hygiene Association conference organised a lunchtime meeting to introduce interested delegates to the organisation, its aims, objectives, activities and projects. Over 50 delegates attended the meeting and there was a lot of enthusiasm for what WHWB are doing.

IOHA2015-540

WHWB co-sponsored the 7th International Control Banding Workshop in partnership with Medgate, which took place at the Conference, and there were also contributions from two WHWB members to the Conference programme. Kevin Hedges from Canada gave an Ignite presentation – Workplace Health Without Borders, Together We Will Make A Difference! – and Dave Zalk from the USA presented a scientific poster entitled Workplace Health Without Borders: Sharing occupational health and hygiene knowledge around the world.

Anyone interested in getting involved can sign up by visiting the WHWB website

Breathe Freely

On the evening of 28 April, Workers’ Memorial Day, the Breathe Freely initiative, which aims to raise awareness of respiratory disease in the construction industry, was launched at a reception at the Merchant Taylor’s Hall in London. The room was packed with 140 people, mainly representatives from the Construction industry.

IOHA2015-663

Breathe Freely is a collaborative initiative led by BOHS in partnership with key organisations within the construction industry. It will provide guidance, tools and resources that facilitate the recognition, evaluation and control of workplace exposures leading to the implementation of a recognised management standard. The aim is not just to raise awareness of the problem but also to effect action by providing practical solutions through sharing of best practice and encouraging implementation of effective exposure control.

Exposure to hazardous substances that can cause respiratory disease is a serious, but often unappreciated, risk for construction workers. However, the number of workers affected can be reduced dramatically if employers adopt good practice and introduce appropriate, cost effective, control measures.  The BOHS led Breathe Freely campaign will be a major step forward in highlighting both the risks and, very importantly, the measures that can be used to minimise them. Diamond Environmental is proud to be a supporter of the initiative