Particulate pollution – PM10 and PM2.5

1289121_50948770

Airborne particulate is a major component of urban air pollution. Anthropogenic sources  include combustion within car engines, solid-fuel combustion in households, industrial activities (such as building, mining, manufacturing of cement, ceramics and bricks, and smelting), quarrying and mining.

Epidemiological evidence indicates a clear relationship between exposure to particulate matter and effects on health, particularly smaller particles that can reach the deep regions of the lungs.

Table 1 – Health effects attributed to exposure to suspended particulate matter

Acute Effects Chronic Effects
Lung inflammatory reactions Increase in lower respiratory symptoms
Respiratory symptoms Reduction in lung function in children
Adverse effects on the cardiovascular system Increase in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Increase in hospital admissions Reduction in lung function in adults
Increase in mortality Reduction in life expectancy
Increase in medication usage

Source: Health aspects of air pollution: Results from the WHO project “Systematic review of health aspects of air pollution in Europe” (WHO, 2004)

With particulate matter, the size of the particles is very important, determining both how long particles remain airborne to be inhaled, and  whether they reach the deep regions of the lung where they can be absorbed.  Only particles smaller than about 10microns (one thousandth of a millimetre) will reach the alveoli.  Larger particles are deposited higher up in the respiratory system and removed on the mucocilliary escalator, but may then be swallowed and subsequently absorbed through the gastro-intestinal tract.

In practice, every individual will inhale a different fraction of a given dust cloud, and this can also vary depending on the particular environment and activity undertaken during exposure. However it is useful to define size selection criteria to use when sampling for airborne particulates, and this task has been undertaken by the International Standards Organisation in ISO 7708:1995 “Air quality — Particle size fraction definitions for health-related sampling”

Inhalable” particulate is the fraction of airborne material which enters the nose and mouth during breathing. Having entered the respiratory system the particles can potentially be deposited anywhere within the respiratory tract. However only very small particles can penetrate deep into the lung . The “thoracic fraction”, describes the mass fraction of particles penetrating beyond the larynx and the fraction of  particles reaching the deep lung  is referred to as “respirable fraction”.

When sampling for environmental pollutants, two other fractions are used – PM10 and PM2.5.

A picture of a human hair compared to the relative sizes of PM 10 and PM 2.5 particles

Carry out a search on the Internet for “PM10” and you’ll find a large number of sites that mention and define the term. For example:

Wikipedia

“The notation PM10 is used to describe particles of 10 micrometers or less and PM2.5 represents particles less than 2.5 micrometers in aerodynamic diameter.”

Environment Agency

“PM10 is the term used to describe tiny particles in the air, made up of a complex mixture of soot, organic and inorganic materials having a particle size less than or equal to 10 microns diameter (10 microns is equal to one hundredth part of a millimetre).”

Health Protection Agency

“PM10 stands for Particulate Matter of less than 10 millionths of a metre (10 micrometers or 10 um) in diameter.”

Unfortunately (and disappointingly), all these definitions are incorrect.  PM10 and PM2.5 are defined by the International Standards Organisation as follows

PM10 – particles which pass through a size-selective inlet with a 50 % efficiency cut-off at 10 μm aerodynamic diameter.  PM10 corresponds to the “thoracic convention” as defined in ISO 7708:1995, Clause 6.

PM2.5 – particles which pass through a size-selective inlet with a 50 % efficiency cut-off at 2,5 μm aerodynamic diameter.  PM2,5 corresponds to the “high-risk respirable convention” as defined in ISO 7708:1995, 7.1.

So, in fact, PM10 is a standard size fraction where the median diameter is 10 microns. This means that 50% of the particles in this fraction have diameters greater than 10 microns. Similarly with PM2.5, 50% of the particles have a diameter greater than 2.5 microns.

I accept that trying to get the concept of particle size fractions across to the general public is not easy, and it’s often necessary to resort to simplifications. However, I think its inexcusable for the same erroneous definitions to be used in scientific publications and presentations and on websites aimed at environmental scientists and professionals.

Picture credits:

California Environmental Protection Agency

http://www.sxc.hu/photo/1289121

About these ads

5 Responses to Particulate pollution – PM10 and PM2.5

  1. Phuthai Boy says:

    Your interpretations of PM10/PM2.5 are incorrect.

    In stead of, …

    “So, in fact, PM10 is a standard size fraction where the median diameter is 10 microns. This means that 50% of the particles in this fraction have diameters greater than 10 microns. Similarly with PM2.5, 50% of the particles have a diameter greater than 2.5 microns.” <<

    PM10 is in fact a collection of particles that are mostly smaller than 10 micrometer in aerodynamic diameter (da). PM10 has been size-selected from the original aerosol such that only half of 10 micrometer particles are present in PM10. It may contain traces of particles larger than 10 micrometer da.

    • ms6282 says:

      Hi. I agree. My explanation of PM10 isn’t correct (I’ve made an error in trying to keep the discussion short) but my point that the definitions commonly given that PM10 consists of particles less than 10 microns is valid. Essentially PM10 represents the thoracic fraction (see http://ars.els-cdn.com/content/image/1-s2.0-S0892687505002050-gr6.gif) An instrument designed to sample for PM10 will collect 50% of particles with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 microns. Below 10 microns, the smaller the particle size the greater the proportion of particles that will be collected. Particles larger than 10 microns will still be collected, albeit the proportion collected reducing with aerodynamic diameter. So particles greater than 10 microns are included in a sample taken for PM10. Another factor to consider is that PM10 determination is by mass. The mas of a particle is proportional to it’s volume – i.e. the cube of it’s diameter. So one large particle weighs considerably more than a small one. So particles greater than 10 microns can constitute a significant proportion of the mass collected when sampling for PM10 in accordance with the ISO convention.

  2. Ruth hanson says:

    When trying to judge whether it is safe for children to go outside and play, which indicator should I be looking at , PM10 or PM2.5?

    • ms6282 says:

      I’m afraid it’s not as simple as that. PM10 and PM2.5 sampling give measures of particulate concentrations but on their own the results are unlikely to give an indication of how safe it is to allow children to play outside.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

Follow

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

Join 110 other followers

%d bloggers like this: